Superficial tumors can usually be treated through the urethra. Since the tumors often recur with time (recurrences), close follow-up (using cystoscopy) is indispensable.
Invasive tumors (tumors that grow into the muscle) can no longer be treated in a way that preserves the bladder, and the bladder usually has to be removed completely. A urinary drainage with a stoma or an artificial urinary bladder made from intestines is then necessary. Alternatively, radio-chemotherapy can be offered – although the chance of a cure is significantly lower than with surgery.
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