The Expectation for Treatment Scale (ETS): A tool to assess outcome-related expectations of patients

We developed the ETS to assess treatment-related outcome expectations for patients with a short but sound questionnaire. Further, we suggest to use the ETS as predictor for treatment outcomes across different clinical settings.

The ETS questionnaire and supplementary material are available from our institute (contact below).

The Expectation for Treatment Scale

Highlights of the ETS

  • 5-item scale
  • Excellent internal consistency and good content validity
  • Developed with more than 100 patients
  • Validated with a separate sample of more than 300 patients
  • All items can be adapted and transferred to other treatments and clinical conditions
  • Available in English, French and German

Barth, J., Kern, A., Lüthi, S., & Witt, C. M. (2019). Assessment of patients’ expectations: Development and validation of the Expectation for Treatment Scale (ETS). BMJ open, 9(6), e026712.


Jürgen Barth, PD Dr. phil.


Tel. +41 44 255 48 96
Specialties: Digital Health, Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses

Claudia Witt, Prof. Dr. med.

Director of the Institute

Tel. +41 44 255 24 60
Specialties: Mind Body Medicine, Integrative Medicine, Integrative oncology